liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van’t Hoff factor.
Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses ; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only) ; Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PCl5 and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties and uses of sulphurdioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; oxoacids of
sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization
enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial
compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactvity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.s
and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s
theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).
substitution reactions, optical rotation.Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.
uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of
phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophillic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses.Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance.
Proteins – Elementary idea of α – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones – Elementary idea excluding structure. Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.Chemicals in food – preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.