India in the North is bounded by the Himalayas, the Arabian Sea in the West, the Bay of Bengal in the East and the Indian Ocean in the South.
India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km.
The North-South extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km. Thus, the west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2900 km.
- The Tropic of Cancer (23°30′ N) passes almost halfway through the country.
- From South to North. India extends between 8°4′ N and 37°6′ N latitudes.
- From West to East, India extends between 68°7′ E and 97°25′ E longitudes.
- The local time changes by four minutes for every one degree of longitude.
- The local time of longitude of 82°30′ E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time.
- There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India.
- The seven countries are Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan. Myanmar and Bangladesh.
- Island neighbours are Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
- Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.
Political and Administrative Divisions
- India is divided into 29 states and 7 union territories.
- Delhi is the national capital.
- Rajasthan is the largest state and Goa is the smallest state in terms of area.
- The Himalayas in the North are divided into three main parallel ranges.
- The three main parallel ranges are Great Himalaya or Himadri, Middle Himalaya or Himachal and Shiwalik.
- The Northern Indian plains lie to the South of the Himalayas.
- In the Western part of India lies the Great Indian desert.
- To the South of Northern plains lies the peninsular plateau.
- Aravali Hills is one of the oldest ranges of the world.
- The Western Ghats or Sahyadris border the plateau in the West and the Eastern Ghats provide the Eastern boundary.
- To the West of the Western Ghats and the East of Eastern Ghats lie the coastal plains.
- The rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri drain into the Bay of Bengal.
- The Sunderban delta is formed where the Ganga and Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal.
- Lakshadweep Islands are located in the Arabian Sea.
- The Andaman and the Nicobar Islands lie to the South-East of the Indian mainland.
- Our country, India is vast. It has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. In the north, it is surrounded by the
- Himalayas; in the west; there is the Arabian Sea; in the east; the Bay of Bengal and in the south; the Indian Ocean.
India has diverse landforms—the lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern plains, the uneven plateau, and the coasts and islands.
The climate of India also varies from region to region.
We also find diversity in flora and fauna as well as in language and culture.
India is the second most populous country of the world after China.
India is located in the Northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through it.
The sun rises two hours earlier in the east, i.e. Arunachal Pradesh than in the west,
i. e. Gujarat.
India’s seven neighbouring countries are—Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Afganistan.
Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.
India is divided into 28 states and 7 Union Territories. Delhi is the national capital.
Rajasthan is the largest state while Goa is the smallest state in terms of area.
India has diverse physical features—mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts and islands.
The Himalayas mountains are divided into three main parallel ranges—the Great Himalaya or Himadri, Middle Himalaya or Himachal and the Shiwalik.
To the south of the Himalayas lie the Northern Indian plains.
In the western part of India lies the Great Indian desert with little vegetation.
To the south of northern plains lies the Peninsular plateau. It is triangular in shape. This is a region with numerous hill ranges and valleys. The Aravali hills, the Vindhyas, the Satpuras are the important ranges.
The Western Ghats border the plateau in the west and the Eastern Ghats provide the
To the west of the Western Ghats and the East of Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains.
Lakshadweep islands are located in the Arabian sea while Andaman and Nicobar islands group lie to the south-east of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.
Peninsula: A piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
Island: A piece of land that is surrounded by water on all sides.
Desert: A vast sandy stretch of land.
Alluvial deposits: Fine soil brought by rivers and deposited in the river basins.
Tributary: A small river or stream that contributes its water to the main river by discharging it into the main river from either side.
Delta: An area of land formed at the mouth of the river. It is usually triangular in shape.
Corals: These are skeletons of tiny marine animals called polyps.
Tsunami: A strong and devastating harbour wave, generated due to an earthquake on the sea floor.
Strait: A narrow passage of water connecting two large water bodies like seas and oceans.