**Properties of Indefinite Integral**

(i) ∫[f(x) + g(x)] dx = ∫f(x) dx + ∫g(x) dx

(ii) For any real number k, ∫k f(x) dx = k∫f(x)dx.

(iii) In general, if f_{1}, f_{2},………, f_{n} are functions and k_{1}, k_{2},…, k_{n} are real numbers, then

∫[k_{1}f_{1}(x) + k_{2} f_{2}(x)+…+ k_{n}f_{n}(x)] dx = k_{1} ∫f_{1}(x) dx + k_{2} ∫ f_{2}(x) dx+…+ k_{n} ∫f_{n}(x) dx

**Basic Formulae**

**Integration using Trigonometric Identities**

When the integrand involves some trigonometric functions, we use the following identities to find the integral:

- 2 sin A . cos B = sin( A + B) + sin( A – B)
- 2 cos A . sin B = sin( A + B) – sin( A – B)
- 2 cos A . cos B = cos (A + B) + cos(A – B)
- 2 sin A . sin B = cos(A – B) – cos (A + B)
- 2 sin A cos A = sin 2A
- cos
^{2}A – sin^{2}A = cos 2A - sin
^{2}A = () - sin
^{2}A + cos^{2}A = 1

**Integration by Substitutions**

Substitution method is used, when a suitable substitution of variable leads to simplification of integral.

If I = ∫f(x)dx, then by putting x = g(z), we get

I = ∫ f[g(z)] g'(z) dz

Note: Try to substitute the variable whose derivative is present in the original integral and final integral must be written in terms of the original variable of integration.

**Integration by Parts**

For a given functions f(x) and q(x), we have

∫[f(x) q(x)] dx = f(x)∫g(x)dx – ∫{f'(x) ∫g(x)dx} dx

Here, we can choose the first function according to its position in ILATE, where

I = Inverse trigonometric function

L = Logarithmic function

A = Algebraic function

T = Trigonometric function

E = Exponential function

[the function which comes first in ILATE should taken as first junction and other as second function]

Note

(i) Keep in mind, ILATE is not a rule as all questions of integration by parts cannot be done by above method.

(ii) It is worth mentioning that integration by parts is not applicable to product of functions in all cases. For instance, the method does not work for ∫√x sinx dx. The reason is that there does not exist any function whose derivative is √x sinx.

(iii) Observe that while finding the integral of the second function, we did not add any constant of integration.

**Integration by Partial Fractions**

A rational function is ratio of two polynomials of the form , where p(x) and q(x) are polynomials in x and q(x) ≠ 0. If degree of p(x) > degree of q(x), then we may divide p(x) by q(x) so that , where t(x) is a polynomial in x which can be integrated easily and degree of p1(x) is less than the degree of q(x) . can be integrated by expressing as the sum of partial fractions of the following type:

where x^{2} + bx + c cannot be factorised further.

Integrals of the types can be transformed into standard form by expressing

Integrals of the types can be transformed into standard form by expressing px + q = A (ax^{2} + bx + c) + B = A(2ax + b) + B, where A and B are determined by comparing coefficients on both sides.