Question 1. What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?
Because the humans contribute to GDP, they are also considered as a resource.
Question 2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
- Land, water, forests and minerals are resources which are essential for the growth, progress and development of human society.
- However these resources become usable only when the human being processes them and develops them; otherwise they are of no use on their own. Without human beings these resources would remain unutilised. Thus human resource is the most important resource because it helps to utilise natural resources.
Question 3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Answer : Education plays a significant and very vital role in human capital formation because education helps the humans to achieve and realize their full potential and achieve success in life in the form of higher incomes earned through better jobs and higher productivity. Education helps the people by broadening their knowledge and providing them training.
Question 4. What is the role of health in human capital formation?
- Only a healthy person can perform to his full potential.
- A healthy person can do the work in a more effective manner.
- A healthy person can contribute to the growth and development of the economy by dOing productive work.
- An unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organisation. Indeed health is an indispensable basis for realising one’s well being.
Realising the importance of health, improvement in the health status of the population has been the priority of the government.
Question 5. What part does health play in the individual’s working life ?
Answer : Health plays an important part in the individual’s working life because
- An unhealthy person cannot work effiCiently.
- If the body is healthy then only the mind can perform well.
- A healthy person is able to work harder and better, thus earning more and living a better life.
Question 6. What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector, and tertiary sector?
Answer : Primary Sector Activities Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming and mining.
Secondary Sector Activities Include manufacturing and construction.
Tertiary Sector Activities Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance, etc.
Question 7. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
Answer : The activities which are performed for money and results in econormc income are called economic activities. These activities add value to the national income.
Those activities which are not performed for money and do not result in economic income are called non-economic activities.
Question 8. Why are women employed in low paid work?
- A majority of the women in India have very less education and low skill formation and thus they perform mainly unskilled labour and get lower wages.
- Being less educated they are unaware of their rights and about minimum wages, or they work in the unorganised sector where they get low wages.
- They are traditionally considered physically inferior to men and believed to do less work, so they are paid less compared to men.
Question 9. How will you explain the term unemployment?
Answer : Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the current wages cannot find jobs.
Question 10. What is the difference unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Answer : Disguised Unemployment between disguised
- In case of disguised unemployment, people appear to be employed but are actually not employed.
- Sometimes in agricultural families, eight people are working in the farm, whereas only five people are needed to do that work. Thus three persons are surplus and they are not needed on the farm. They also do not help to increase the production of the farm.
- If these three extra persons are removed from the farm. the production from the farm will not decrease; therefore these three persons appear to be employed but are actually disguisedly unemployed.
- Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of the year.
- People dependent upon agriculture usually face such a kind of problem. There are certain busy seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing is done. But when the plants are growing, there is not much work.
- During this period, they remain unemployed and are said to be seasonally unemployed.
Question 11. Why is educated unemployed a peculiar problem of India?
- In the case of urban areas, educate”dunemployment has become a corrmon phenomenon. Many urban youth with matriculation, graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find jobs.
- A study showed that unemployment of graduates and post graduates has increased faster than among matriculates.
- A paradoxical manpower situation is witnessed as surplus of manpower in certain categories coexists with shortage of manpower in others.
- There is unemployment among technically qualified persons on one hand, while there is dearth of technical skills required for economic growth.
- So we can say that educated unemployment is indeed a peculiar problem of India.
Question 12. In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?
- Agriculture sector in India is suffering from disguised unemployment and there is no more possibility of further employment.
- Unemployed rural labour force is now migrating to the cities to work in the industrial sector where many industries have been set up and has the maximum capacity to provide employment.
- The educated unemployed can also find jobs in the service sector or the tertiary sector.
Question 13. Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?
Vocational education should be encouraged so that after education, people do not have difficulty in getting jobs because they will better trained for work.
- More use of Information Ttechnology (IT) should be made in giving education.
- Education should cater to the needs of the employment markets.
- More opportunities should be made available in the tertiary sector where more educated unemployed people can find jobs.
Question 14. Can you imagine some village which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?
Rampur was a small village which initially depended on agriculture which was also dependent on rainfall.
- Then electricity reached the village and people could irrigate their fields and could grow 2 to 3 crops in a year and get work.
- Some people set up small scale industries which could be run by electricity and provided employment to people.
- A school was established and now the population started to become educated and as a result they could seek employment in and outside the village. The village became prosperous and soon had better health, education, transport and job facilities.
Question 15. Which capital would you consider the best land labour physical capital and human capital? Why?
- Land labour physical capital and human capital are very important for the growth and development of the society and the economy.
- In the absence of any of these resources we cannot hope to much progress, so they are very Important.
- However, human capital is the most important capital because all other types of capital can be utilised only by humans; if humans do not develop and process other capital or resources and make them usable, they would remain underdeveloped and unutilised because on their own they are useless and of no use to anybody.
If we develop human capital, all others will automatically develop and lead to progress.