• Discovery of Electron—Discharge Tube Experiment In 1879, William Crooks studied the conduction of electricity through gases at low pressure. He performed the experiment in a discharge tube which is a cylindrical hard glass tube about 60 cm in length. It is sealed at both the ends and fitted with two metal electrodes as shown […]

# CBSE Class 11 Sample Papers, Syllabus, Test Papers & NCERT Solutions

## Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 Chapter 1 Notes

• Importance of Chemistry Chemistry has a direct impact on our life and has wide range of applications in different fields. These are given below: (A) In Agriculture and Food: (i) It has provided chemical fertilizers such as urea, calcium phosphate, sodium nitrate, ammonium phosphate etc. (ii) It has helped to protect the crops from […]

## Maths Notes for Class 11 – All Chapters

Chapter 1 – Sets Class 11 Notes Chapter 2 – Relations and Functions Class 11 Notes Chapter 3 – Trigonometric Functions Class 11 Notes Chapter 4 – Principle of Mathematical Induction Class 11 Notes Chapter 5 – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Class 11 Notes Chapter 6 – Linear Inequalities Class 11 Notes Chapter 7 – […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 16 Probability Notes

Random Experiment An experiment whose outcomes cannot be predicted or determined in advance is called a random experiment. Outcome A possible result of a random experiment is called its outcome. Sample Space A sample space is the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment. Events An event is a subset of a sample space […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 15 Statistics Notes

Measure of Dispersion The dispersion is the measure of variations in the values of the variable. It measures the degree of scatteredness of the observation in a distribution around the central value. Range The measure of dispersion which is easiest to understand and easiest to calculate is the range. Range is defined as the difference […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 14 Mathematical Reasoning Notes

Statements A statement is a sentence which is either true or false, but not both simultaneously. Note: No sentence can be called a statement if It is an exclamation. It is an order or request. It is a question. Simple Statements A statement is called simple if it cannot be broken down into two or […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Notes Chapter 13 Limits and Derivatives

Limit Let y = f(x) be a function of x. If at x = a, f(x) takes indeterminate form, then we consider the values of the function which is very near to a. If these value tend to a definite unique number as x tends to a, then the unique number so obtained is called […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 12 Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry Notes

Coordinate Axes In three dimensions, the coordinate axes of a rectangular cartesian coordinate system are three mutually perpendicular lines. These axes are called the X, Y and Z axes. Coordinate Planes The three planes determined by the pair of axes are the coordinate planes. These planes are called XY, YZ and ZX plane and they […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 11 Conic Sections Notes

Circle A circle is the set of all points in a plane, which are at a fixed distance from a fixed point in the plane. The fixed point is called the centre of the circle and the distance from centre to any point on the circle is called the radius of the circle. The equation […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 10 Straight Lines Notes

Distance Formula The distance between two points A(x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) is given by The distance of a point A(x, y) from the origin 0 (0, 0) is given by OA = Section Formula The coordinates of the point which divides the joint of (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in the ratio m […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 9 Sequences and Series Notes

Sequence A succession of numbers arranged in a definite order according to a given certain rule is called sequence. A sequence is either finite or infinite depending upon the number of terms in a sequence. Series If a1, a2, a3,…… an is a sequence, then the expression a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + … + an is called series. […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 8 Binomial Theorem Notes

Binomial Expression An expression consisting of two terms, connected by + or – sign is called binomial expression. Binomial Theorem If a and b are real numbers and n is a positive integer, then The general term of (r + 1)th term in the expression is given by Tr+1 = nCr an-r br Some Important Observations from the Binomial Theorem […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 7 Permutations and Combinations Notes

Fundamental Principles of Counting Multiplication Principle: Suppose an operation A can be performed in m ways and associated with each way of performing of A, another operation B can be performed in n ways, then total number of performance of two operations in the given order is mxn ways. This can be extended to any […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 6 Linear Inequalities Notes

Inequation A statement involving variables and the sign of inequality viz. >, <, ≥ or ≤ is called an inequation or an inequality. Numerical Inequalities Inequalities which do not contain any variable is called numerical inequalities, e.g. 3 < 7, 2 ≥ -1, etc. Literal Inequalities Inequalities which contains variables are called literal inequalities e.g. […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 5 Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Notes

Imaginary Numbers The square root of a negative real number is called an imaginary number, e.g. √-2, √-5 etc. The quantity √-1 is an imaginary unit and it is denoted by ‘i’ called Iota. Integral Power of IOTA (i) i = √-1, i2 = -1, i3 = -i, i4 = 1 So, i4n+1 = i, i4n+2 = -1, i4n+3 = -i, […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 4 Principle of Mathematical Induction Notes

Principle of Mathematical Induction Mathematical induction is one of the techniques, which can be used to prove a variety of mathematical statements which are formulated in terms of n, where n is a positive integer. Let P(n) be given statement involving the natural number n such that (i) The statement is true for n = […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 3 Trigonometric Functions Notes

Angle Angle is a measure of rotation of a given ray about its initial point. The original ray is called the initial side and the final position of ray after rotation is called terminal side of the angle. The point of rotation is called vertex. If the direction of rotation is anti-clockwise, the angle is […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 2 Relations and Functions Notes

Ordered Pair An ordered pair consists of two objects or elements in a given fixed order. Equality of Two Ordered Pairs Two ordered pairs (a, b) and (c, d) are equal if a = c and b = d. Cartesian Product of Two Sets For any two non-empty sets A and B, the set of […]