• Oxidation Oxidation is defined as the addition of oxygen/electronegative element to a substance or rememoval of hydrogen/ electropositive element from a susbtance. For example, • Reduction Reduction is defined as the memoval of oxygen/electronegative element from a substance or addition of hydrogen or electropositive element to a substance. For example, • Redox Reaction in […]

# CBSE Class 11 Sample Papers, Syllabus, Test Papers & NCERT Solutions

## Equilibrium Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 7 Notes

• Chemical Equilibrium In a chemical reaction chemical equilibrium is defined as the state at which there is no further change in concentration of reactants and products. For example, At equilibrium the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of backward reaction. Equilibrium mixture: The mixture of reactants and products in the equilibrium state is […]

## Thermodynamics Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Notes

• Important Terms and Definitions System: Refers to the portion of universe which is under observation. Surroundings: Everything else in the universe except system is called surroundings. The Universe = The System + The Surroundings. Open System: In a system, when there is exchange of energy and matter taking place with the surroundings, then it is called an […]

## States of Matter Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 5 Notes

• Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces are the forces of attraction and repulsion between interacting particles have permanent dipole moments. This interaction is stronger than the London forces but is weaker than ion-ion interaction because only partial charges are involved. The attractive forces decrease with the increase of distance between dipoles. The interaction energy is proportional […]

## Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Notes

• Chemical Bond The force that holds different atoms in a molecule is called chemical bond. • Octet Rule Atoms of different elements take part in chemical combination in order to complete their octet or to attain the noble gas configuration. • Valence Electrons It is the outermost shell electron which takes part in chemical […]

## Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Notes

• Genesis of Periodic Classification Dobereiner’s Triads In 1829, Dobereiner arranged certain elements with similar properties in groups of three in such a way that the atomic mass of the middle element was nearly the same as the average atomic masses of the first and the third elements. A few triads proposed by him are […]

## Structure of Atom Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 2 Notes

• Discovery of Electron—Discharge Tube Experiment In 1879, William Crooks studied the conduction of electricity through gases at low pressure. He performed the experiment in a discharge tube which is a cylindrical hard glass tube about 60 cm in length. It is sealed at both the ends and fitted with two metal electrodes as shown […]

## Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 Chapter 1 Notes

• Importance of Chemistry Chemistry has a direct impact on our life and has wide range of applications in different fields. These are given below: (A) In Agriculture and Food: (i) It has provided chemical fertilizers such as urea, calcium phosphate, sodium nitrate, ammonium phosphate etc. (ii) It has helped to protect the crops from […]

## Maths Notes for Class 11 – All Chapters

Chapter 1 – Sets Class 11 Notes Chapter 2 – Relations and Functions Class 11 Notes Chapter 3 – Trigonometric Functions Class 11 Notes Chapter 4 – Principle of Mathematical Induction Class 11 Notes Chapter 5 – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Class 11 Notes Chapter 6 – Linear Inequalities Class 11 Notes Chapter 7 – […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 16 Probability Notes

Random Experiment An experiment whose outcomes cannot be predicted or determined in advance is called a random experiment. Outcome A possible result of a random experiment is called its outcome. Sample Space A sample space is the set of all possible outcomes of an experiment. Events An event is a subset of a sample space […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 15 Statistics Notes

Measure of Dispersion The dispersion is the measure of variations in the values of the variable. It measures the degree of scatteredness of the observation in a distribution around the central value. Range The measure of dispersion which is easiest to understand and easiest to calculate is the range. Range is defined as the difference […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 14 Mathematical Reasoning Notes

Statements A statement is a sentence which is either true or false, but not both simultaneously. Note: No sentence can be called a statement if It is an exclamation. It is an order or request. It is a question. Simple Statements A statement is called simple if it cannot be broken down into two or […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Notes Chapter 13 Limits and Derivatives

Limit Let y = f(x) be a function of x. If at x = a, f(x) takes indeterminate form, then we consider the values of the function which is very near to a. If these value tend to a definite unique number as x tends to a, then the unique number so obtained is called […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 12 Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry Notes

Coordinate Axes In three dimensions, the coordinate axes of a rectangular cartesian coordinate system are three mutually perpendicular lines. These axes are called the X, Y and Z axes. Coordinate Planes The three planes determined by the pair of axes are the coordinate planes. These planes are called XY, YZ and ZX plane and they […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 11 Conic Sections Notes

Circle A circle is the set of all points in a plane, which are at a fixed distance from a fixed point in the plane. The fixed point is called the centre of the circle and the distance from centre to any point on the circle is called the radius of the circle. The equation […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 10 Straight Lines Notes

Distance Formula The distance between two points A(x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) is given by The distance of a point A(x, y) from the origin 0 (0, 0) is given by OA = Section Formula The coordinates of the point which divides the joint of (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in the ratio m […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 9 Sequences and Series Notes

Sequence A succession of numbers arranged in a definite order according to a given certain rule is called sequence. A sequence is either finite or infinite depending upon the number of terms in a sequence. Series If a1, a2, a3,…… an is a sequence, then the expression a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + … + an is called series. […]

## CBSE Class 11 Maths Chapter 8 Binomial Theorem Notes

Binomial Expression An expression consisting of two terms, connected by + or – sign is called binomial expression. Binomial Theorem If a and b are real numbers and n is a positive integer, then The general term of (r + 1)th term in the expression is given by Tr+1 = nCr an-r br Some Important Observations from the Binomial Theorem […]